Critical Gambling Studies <p><em>Critical Gambling Studies</em> is an open access, double-blind peer-reviewed journal published bi-annually. We welcome original research and writing from researchers working in established disciplines including: philosophy, psychology, anthropology, sociology, politics, criminology aesthetics, history, economics, literature, theology, art history and architecture, tourism and leisure studies, public health and law. We are also keen to consider interdisciplinary approaches to gambling research within an activist tradition.&nbsp;</p> University of Alberta Library en-US Critical Gambling Studies 2563-190X <p>Authors retain copyright of their work, with first publication rights granted to <em>Critical Gambling Studies</em>.</p> <p> </p> “This is not about gambling, it’s about our lives” <p>In this interview, Darrel Manitowabi speaks to Sheila Wahsquonaikezhik, Director of Indige-Spheres to Empowerment, a non-profit organization addressing Indigenous health and wellness. This interview explores Sheila Wahsquonaikezhik’s Indigenous gambling experience including work in an Indigenous casino in Ontario, gambling harm reduction outreach in northwestern Ontario First Nations, and gambling research collaborations. An outcome of this interview is a revelation that the practice of Indigenous gambling is connected to the wider context of colonialism and Indigenous gambling research requires greater inclusion of Indigenous peoples.</p> Darrel Manitowabi Sheila Wahsquonaikezhik Copyright (c) 2021 Darrel Manitowabi, Sheila Wahsquonaikezhik 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 2 2 159 165 10.29173/cgs84 Leveling Up: Reminiscing on the Evolution of Gambling within the Video Game Industry <p>This article is an expert commentary by digital artist Caitlyn Salmon, written for the Critical Indigenous Gambling Studies special issue of Critical Gambling Studies.</p> Caitlyn Salmon Copyright (c) 2021 Caitlyn Salmon 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 2 2 166 168 10.29173/cgs124 Gaming in Kahnawà:ke <p>This is an article by Murray Marshall to be published as a commentary in the CIGS issue.</p> Murray Marshall Copyright (c) 2021 Murray Marshall 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 2 2 169 171 10.29173/cgs122 Building Bridges: A Reflection on the Need to Decolonize Gambling Studies <p>This article is a commentary by Sylvia Kairouz, Ph.D., written for the Critical Indigenous Gambling Studies special issue of Critical Gambling Studies.</p> Sylvia Kairouz Copyright (c) 2021 Sylvia Kairouz 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 2 2 172 174 10.29173/cgs125 Editorial: What are Critical Indigenous Gambling Studies? <p>Editorial by the Editors of the special issue, "Critical Indigenous Gambling Studies".</p> Darrel Manitowabi Fiona Nicoll Copyright (c) 2021 Darrel Manitowabi, Fiona Nicoll 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 2 2 i iii 10.29173/cgs123 Book review: Sulkunen, P., Babor, T., Cisneros Örnberg, J., Egerer, M., Hellman, M., Livingstone, C., Marionneau, V., Nikkinen, J., Orford, J., Room, R. & Rossow, I. (2019). Setting Limits: Gambling, Sciences and Public Policy. <p>This article is a book review of <em>Setting Limits: Gambling, Sciences and Public Policy</em>&nbsp;(Sulkunen et al., 2019). This policy-oriented book, authored by an international group of experts, is intended for public health professionals and policymakers, and&nbsp;provides a comprehensive review of research on worldwide gambling trends, addiction and related public health issues.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sébastien Berret Copyright (c) 2021 Sébastien Berret 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 2 2 175 176 10.29173/cgs119 Gambling with the Windigo: Theorizing Indigenous Casinos and Gambling in Canada <p>The legacy of colonialism in Canada manifests through land dispossession, structural violence and assimilative policies. Casinos are an anomaly emerging in Canada, becoming major economic engines, generating capital for housing, education, health, and language and cultural rejuvenation programs. On the other hand, the literature on Indigenous casinos raises crucial questions about compromised sovereignty, addiction, and neocolonial economic and political entrapment. This article theorises Indigenous casinos as a modern expression of the <em>windigo</em>. In Algonquian oral history, the <em>windigo</em> is a mythic giant cannibal. The underlying meaning of the <em>windigo</em> is the consumption of Indigenous peoples leading to illness and death. One can become a <em>windigo</em> and consume others, and one must always be cautious of this possibility. I propose casinos and Indigenous-provincial gambling revenue agreements are modern-day <em>windigook</em> (plural form of <em>windigo</em>). This framework provides an urgently needed new theorisation of casinos, grounded in Indigenous epistemology and ontology.</p> Darrel Manitowabi Copyright (c) 2021 Darrel Manitowabi 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 2 2 113 122 10.29173/cgs82 Gambling in Ancient North America <p>Gambling in ancient North America was primarily an intergroup activity. This position as a liminal practice, taking place on territorial frontiers and at large intertribal gatherings, puts gaming on the very forefront of cultural transmission and knowledge exchange, with several implications. Intergroup gaming results in a shared fluency of games, transcending barriers of language and ethnicity. Evidence of common methods and materials allows ancient, region-spanning social networks to be identified. And subtle variations demonstrate a repeated and ongoing negotiation between groups over time as objectives and participants change, with this evolution of gaming practices continuing to the present day. The freedom to adapt to changing conditions, contrasted with notions of a static “traditional” past, is not just a matter of sovereignty relating to Indigenous games. It is a reflection of the nature of Indigenous gaming as it has always been.</p> Gabriel Yanicki Copyright (c) 2021 Gabriel M. Yanicki 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 2 2 123 140 10.29173/cgs87 WAI 1909 – The Waitangi Tribunal Gambling Claim <p>In 2008, I lodged a claim with the Waitangi Tribunal in regard to problem gambling and its negative impacts on Māori people. The Tribunal is tasked with hearing grievances related to <em>Te Tiriti o Waitangi </em>(The Treaty of Waitangi) signed in 1840 between Māori and the British Crown. It is a historical claim focused on the lack of adequate protection of<em> taiohi </em>Māori (young people of Māori descent) and the intergenerational harm caused by problem gambling among their <em>whānau, hapū, iwi</em> (extended families and relatives) and urban Māori communities. However, this begs the question how can a Treaty claim improve the health outcomes of a generation of <em>taiohi </em>Māori who have been exposed to commercial gambling and its aggressive and targeted expansion and marketing? This paper frames the WAI-1909 claim as a <em>Kaupapa Māori</em> (Māori research approach) derived from the research of three <em>wahine toa </em>(warrior women) supporting the claim; and refers to epistemological standpoints of Māori women working in the gambling research space. I demonstrate how the gambling claim challenges the New Zealand government to honour the promises in the articles of <em>Te Tiriti o Waitangi</em> and to protect the rights of its citizens, especially <em>taiohi </em>Māori<em>. </em>The WAI-1909 gambling claim concludes that whilst the New Zealand Gambling Act (2003) includes a public health approach to problem gambling, it has not adequately addressed the rights of <em>tangata whenua</em> (Māori, the first people of Aotearoa/New Zealand) under <em>Te Tiriti o Waitangi.</em></p> Ruth Ann Herd Copyright (c) 2021 Ruth Ann Herd 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 2 2 141 150 10.29173/cgs91 Tribal Casino Labor Relations and Settler Colonialism <p>Sovereignty provides the legal basis for tribal casinos in the United States.&nbsp; However, since the industry’s rapid growth (valued at $34 billion for 2019), courts are now revisiting decades-old precedents in federal Indian law to reinterpret policies in ways that add new constraints to tribal sovereignty.&nbsp; Because tribal casinos often employ large numbers of non-Native Americans, tribal casino labor relations have become a new arena for contests over the boundaries of tribal sovereignty.&nbsp; This article investigates recent tribal casino labor relations court rulings (e.g. Little River, Soaring Eagle, and Pauma) through the lens of settler colonialism in order to understand new revisions to legal precedents.&nbsp; It argues that settler colonialism continues to underlie federal policies and that the growth of tribal casinos reveal that the federal government may intervene to undercut tribal sovereignty.</p> Theodor Gordon Copyright (c) 2021 Theodor P. Gordon 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 2 2 151 158 10.29173/cgs73